Baruch Spinoza born Benedito de Espinosa (1632-1677) was a cool Portuguese philosopher. His thinking helped bring about the Enlightenment. He invented a modern way of viewing one self in relation to the universe. No longer was the universe passing out favors or punishments. The universe was, well the universe, and for our part prayer or meditation was a good idea. Spinoza was one of the great rationalists of his time and a leading figure of the Dutch Golden Age.
Illustration by Kathleen McGuinness. Visit her watercolor portraits.
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